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Encoding Celtic fonts

Michael Everson

Celtic fonts should not just be decorative fonts; they should be useful for Celtic languages.

To ensure compatibility and reliability of text interchange, standard 8-bit character sets have been developed to serve the Celtic languages.

There are now new character set versions which have to be reckoned with when converting text. It is highly recommended to use the new version 2.0 character sets.

The advent of the EURO SIGN and the need to represent it in Gaelic fonts has required the devising of new versions of the recommended character sets. Because another character, the TIRONIAN SIGN ET (the "agus" sign), was also added to the Univeral Character Set, it was also necessary to disunify it from the AMPERSAND, to restore the AMPERSAND to its correct position in the code tables, and to add the TIRONIAN SIGN ET to new positions in the code table. Evidence for the use of both AMPERSAND and TIRONIAN SIGN ET in Irish texts can be found at http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/amperagus.pdf
  1. On the Macintosh, the Mac OS Gaelic character set offers all the usual letters found in the Mac OS Roman character set, plus the extra consonants used in Irish Gaelic and the extra vowels used in Welsh. This character set shipped with the Irish Gaelic localization of the Mac OS.
  2. On the PC, the new Extended Latin 8 character set, offers all the usual letters found in the Latin 1 character set, plus the extra consonants used in Irish Gaelic and the extra vowels used in Welsh. Its extensions in columns 8 and 9 are for use under Windows. Latin 8 was approved as ISO/IEC 8859-14 in 1998.
  3. On the PC, an ad-hoc standard was developed and published in 1994 in Feasta, called the CER-GS (Celtic Extended Roman GS) character set. A number of typographers have implemented this standard. Because of the status afforded Celtic character encoding by ISO/IEC 8859-14, it is highly recommended to use Extended Latin 8 rather than CER-GS. CER-GS has not been updated to contain the EURO SIGN or the TIRONIAN ET SIGN.

If you are making Celtic fonts, you should use (1) for Mac fonts and (2) for PC fonts. The character sets below show you where you should put these characters when developing Celtic fonts if you wish to support the standard character sets for Celtic. Compliance with these standards is highly recommended. Encoded data is just as important as a beautiful typeface.

As technology improves and information about Unicode-ready fonts is available, this page will be updated to reflect it.

Mac OS Gaelic

Version 2.0Version 1.0

The characters shaded in the drawing here are the special Celtic characters not normally found in the Macintosh Roman code table. They are given here in order of their appearance in the Macintosh code table:

2.0
hex
1.0
hex
NameUCS
26--AMPERSAND0026
B0B0LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B WITH DOT ABOVE1E02
B4B4LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH DOT ABOVE1E03
B5B5LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH DOT ABOVE010A
B6B6LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH DOT ABOVE010B
B7B7LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH DOT ABOVE1E0A
B8B8LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH DOT ABOVE1E0B
B9B8LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F WITH DOT ABOVE1E1E
BABALATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH DOT ABOVE1E1F
BBBBLATIN CAPITAL LETTER G WITH DOT ABOVE0120
BCBCLATIN SMALL LETTER G WITH DOT ABOVE0121
BDBDLATIN CAPITAL LETTER M WITH DOT ABOVE1E40
C0C0LATIN SMALL LETTER M WITH DOT ABOVE1E41
C1C1LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P WITH DOT ABOVE1E56
C2C2LATIN SMALL LETTER P WITH DOT ABOVE1E57
C3C3LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH LONG LEG027C
C5C5LATIN SMALL LETTER LONG S017F
C6C6LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH DOT ABOVE1E60
D6D6LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH DOT ABOVE1E61
D7D7LATIN SMALL LETTER LONG S WITH DOT ABOVE1E9B
DADALATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH DOT ABOVE1E6A
DB--EURO SIGN20AC
--DBCURRENCY SIGN00A4
DEDELATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH CIRCUMFLEX0176
DFDFLATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH CIRCUMFLEX0177
E0E0LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH DOT ABOVE1E6B
E2E2LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH GRAVE1EF2
E3E3LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH GRAVE1EF3
E426TIRONIAN SIGN ET204A
--E4PER MILLE SIGN2030
F6F6LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH ACUTE00DD
F7D7LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH ACUTE00FD
F8D8LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH CIRCUMFLEX0174
F9F9LATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH CIRCUMFLEX0175
FAFALATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH DIAERESIS1E84
FBFBLATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH DIAERESIS1E85
FCFCLATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH GRAVE1E80
FDFDLATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH GRAVE1E81
FEFELATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH ACUTE1E82
FFFFLATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH ACUTE1E83

Extended Latin 8

Version 2.0Version 1.0

The characters shaded in the drawing here are the special Celtic characters not normally found in the Latin 1 code table. They are given here in order of their appearance in the Latin 8 code table:

2.0
hex
1.0
hex
NameUCS
26--AMPERSAND0026
80--EURO SIGN20AC
8426TIRONIAN SIGN ET204A
--84PLUS-MINUS SIGN00B1
8989LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH LONG LEG027C
8A8ALATIN SMALL LETTER LONG S017F
9A9ALATIN SMALL LETTER LONG S WITH DOT ABOVE1E9B
9F9FLATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS I0131
A1A1LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B WITH DOT ABOVE1E02
A2A2LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH DOT ABOVE1E03
A4A4LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH DOT ABOVE010A
A5A5LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH DOT ABOVE010B
A6A6LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH DOT ABOVE1E0A
A8A8LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH GRAVE1E80
AAAALATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH ACUTE1E82
ABABLATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH DOT ABOVE1E0B
ACACLATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH GRAVE1EF2
AFAFLATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS0178
B0B0LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F WITH DOT ABOVE1E1E
B1B1LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH DOT ABOVE1E1F
B2B2LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G WITH DOT ABOVE0120
B3B3LATIN SMALL LETTER G WITH DOT ABOVE0121
B4B4LATIN CAPITAL LETTER M WITH DOT ABOVE1E40
B5B5LATIN SMALL LETTER M WITH DOT ABOVE1E41
B7B7LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P WITH DOT ABOVE1E56
B8B8LATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH GRAVE1E81
B9B9LATIN SMALL LETTER P WITH DOT ABOVE1E57
BABALATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH ACUTE1E83
BBBBLATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH DOT ABOVE1E60
BCBCLATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH GRAVE1EF3
BDBDLATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH DIAERESIS1E84
BEBELATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH DIAERESIS1E85
BFBFLATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH DOT ABOVE1E61
D0D0LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH CIRCUMFLEX0174
D7D7LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH DOT ABOVE1E6A
DEDELATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH CIRCUMFLEX0176
F0F0LATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH CIRCUMFLEX0175
F7F7LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH DOT ABOVE1E6B
FEFELATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH CIRCUMFLEX0177

CER-GS (Celtic Extended Roman GS)

The characters shaded in the drawing here are the special Celtic characters not normally found in the Windows code table. They are given here in order of their appearance in the CER-GS code table:

hexNameUCS
82LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B WITH DOT ABOVE1E02
83LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH DOT ABOVE010A
84LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH DOT ABOVE1E0A
86LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G WITH DOT ABOVE0120
87LATIN CAPITAL LETTER M WITH DOT ABOVE1E40
89LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P WITH DOT ABOVE1E56
8ALATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH DOT ABOVE1E60
9ALATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH DOT ABOVE1E61
9FDIAERESIS00A8
A1LATIN SMALL LETTER LONG S017F
A4LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH DOT ABOVE1E0B
A5LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F WITH DOT ABOVE1E1E
A8LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH GRAVE1E80
AALATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH ACUTE1E82
ACLATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH GRAVE1EF2
AFLATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS0178
B0LATIN SMALL LETTER G WITH DOT ABOVE0121
B1LATIN SMALL LETTER LONG S WITH DOT ABOVE1E9B
B2LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH DOT ABOVE1E03
B3LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH DOT ABOVE010B
B5LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH DOT ABOVE1E1F
B7LATIN SMALL LETTER M WITH DOT ABOVE1E41
B8LATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH GRAVE1E81
B9LATIN SMALL LETTER P WITH DOT ABOVE1E57
BALATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH ACUTE1E83
BCLATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH GRAVE1EF3
BDLATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH DIAERESIS1E84
BELATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH DIAERESIS1E85
BFLATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH LONG LEG027C
D0LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W WITH CIRCUMFLEX0174
D7LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH DOT ABOVE1E6A
DELATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH CIRCUMFLEX0176
F0LATIN SMALL LETTER W WITH CIRCUMFLEX0175
F7LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH DOT ABOVE1E6B
FELATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH CIRCUMFLEX0177
 
HTML Michael Everson, Evertype, Cnoc na Sceiche, Leac an Anfa, Cathair na Mart, Co. Mhaigh Eo, √Čire, 2002-04-27

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