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Gramat Volapüka

Volapük Dictionary

Arie de Jong

2012. Cathair na Mart: Evertype. ISBN 978-1-904808-94-7 (hardcover), price: €12.95, £10.95, $15.95.

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Foreword to the 2012 edition

Like Wörterbuch der Weltsprache: Vödabuk Vola­püka, Arie de Jong’s Gramat Volapüka has been out of print for decades. Now that his dictionary has been re-published in facsimile, it makes sense to make his grammar available again as well.

Arie de Jong wrote his grammar entirely in Volapük, believing that in time people interested in Volapük in different countries would write their own grammars. It is my intention to work with other Volapükologists to publish an edition of the Gramat Volapüka with a complete English translation and notes, but as the preparation of that volume may take some time, I thought it best to re-issue the Gramat Volapüka now, in facsimile, as a companion to the Vödabuk, for those who can make use of it.

De Jong inherited and improved a phonetic alphabet (lafab fonetik) from Schleyer, and used it to transcribe non-Volapük words in both the Vödabuk Volapüka and in the Gramat Volapüka. Since today the International Phonetic Alphabet is used, Schleyer’s alphabet is of interest more as a curiosity than anything else. In §4, §11, §265, and §266 I have added in {curly brackets} the I.P.A. equivalent or equivalents of the lafab fonetik as an aid to the reader.

A few corrections have been made to the text, almost all of which are relatively trivial or have to do with transcription:

  • in §1, “[yohánĕs]” has been corrected to “[yohánĕš]”, “[lìžĕlstä́tĕn]” to “[lìžĕlǰtä́tĕn]”, “[kón-stánz]” to “[kón-štánž]”, “[slóĭmĕr]” to “[šlóĭmĕr]”, and “[hildĕgárdis]” to “[hildĕgárdiš]”.
  • in §11, “[sól]” has been corrected to “[šól]”, “[gus]” to “[guš]”; “[siä́řa]” to “[šiä́řa]”, “[čì̯nkve]” to “[čì̯nkwe]”, and “[ä́x̌istä́nž]” to “[ä́x̌ištä́nž]”; in §11, §13, §116, and §117 French oe is now written œ.
  • in §12, “,sheerzeep” has been corrected to “‚sheerzeep’”.
  • in §13, “[sö̱́r]” has been corrected to “[šö̱́r]”.
  • in §14, “[sablĕ]” has been corrected to “[šablĕ]”, and “[hóĭšěr]” to “[hóĭsěr]”.
  • in §15, “[fàtĕrlánd]” has been corrected to “[fàtĕrlánt]”.
  • in §19, a number of diacritics have been put right (Å, Ḁ, ě, l̥, L̥, ș, Ș, t̗, T̗, t̯, T̯, Ħ̃).
  • in §34, “[kyurió-sítí]” has been corrected to “[kyurió-šítí]”.
  • in §43, “[kástràti]” has been corrected to “[káštràti]”.
  • in §46, “[skòpoli]” has been twice corrected to “[škòpoli]”.
  • in §49, “[táĭmš]” has been corrected to “[táĭms]”, “[krístòforo]” to “[kríštòforo]”, [vulvĕr̊ħ] to [wulwĕr̊ħ], and “[ħĕ]” has been corrected twice to “[đĕ]”.
  • in §55, “[kvám]” has been corrected to “[kwám, kvám]” and “[kánòpus]” to “[kánòpuš]”.
  • in §116, Russian стулъ has been respelt стул per the 1918 spelling reform, “[sùmbu]” has been corrected to “[šùmbu]”, and “[gràhana]” to “[gràhaṇa]”, noting that a Schleyerian “[ṇ]” (I.P.A. [ɳ]) is not listed in §11.
  • in §117, “[svón]” has been corrected to “[swón]”.
  • in §228, “[fiktòriĕ]” has been corrected to “[viktòriĕ]”.
  • in §256, “ba? … lodom.” has been changed to “ba … lodom?”.
  • in §273, the number has been corrected from 373, and “[že⹀u⹀äš⹀o⹀fol]” has been corrected to “[ce⹀u⹀äš⹀​o⹀fol]”.

In the section on the Latin alphabet I have made more extensive emendations. As of now I do not know how much of de Jong’s description was his own and how much was based on the one he inherited from Schleyer, but the pronunciation recommended is quite “German” in nature. Today, at any rate, it is reasonable to recognize that three traditions of pronouncing Latin are common (and that none of them is necessarily quintes­sentially appro­priate for users of Volapük). In accordance with this recognition I have altered the text in a few places:

  • in §258 “C c [že]” has been changed to “C c [ke, že, če]”, and “V v [ve]” to “V v [we, ve]”; “W v [va]” has been corrected to “W w [wa]”.
  • in §261.3 “[k]” has been changed to “[k, ž, č]”.
  • in §261.4 “ud äs el [t⹀ž]” has been changed to “ud äs els [k⹀k, t⹀ž, t⹀č]”.
  • in §261.8 “äs el [ž]” has been changed to “äs el [ž] ud äs el [t]”, “[gràžiá]” to “[gràtiá, gràžiá]”, and “[tä́ržiuš]” to “[tä́rtiuš, tä́ržiuš]”.
  • in §261.10 “[u cón-šónánš]” has been corrected to “[u kón-šónánš]”; “[ye] e [v]” has been changed to “[ye], e [w, v]”, “[vìnum]” to “[wìnum, vìnum]”, “[sán⹀gviš]” to “[šán⹀gwiš, šán⹀gviš]”, “[kvä́rkuš]” to “[kwä́rkuš, kvä́rkuš]”, and “[kvó-niám]” to “[kwó-niám, kvó-niám]”.
  • in §261.11 “[q, f, th]” has been changed to “[kh, ph, th] u [q̌, f, ħ]”.

In the section on the Ancient Greek alphabet I have made a few similar emendations:

  • in §262 in the third column “[vau] ü [digám-má]” has been changed to “[wau, digám-má]” and in the fifth column “[v]” has been changed to “[w]”.
  • in §262 in the third column “[thä̀tá]” has been changed to “[thä̀tá, ħä̀tá]” and in the fifth column “[th]” has been changed to “[th, ħ]”.
  • in §262 in the third column “[láb-dá] ü [lámb-dá]” has been changed to “[lámb-dá, láb-dá]”.
  • in §262 in the third column “[fi]” has been changed to “[phi, fi]” and in the fifth column “[f]” has been changed to “[ph, f]”.
  • in §262 in the third column “[qi]” has been changed to “[khi, q̌i]” and in the fifth column “[q]” has been changed to “[kh, q̌]”.
  • in §263 for reasons of space I have only altered the transcriptions “[án-thropóš]” to “[án-thropóš, án-ħropóš]”, “[àgathós]” to “[àgathóš/àgaħóš]”, and “(šòfokläš]” to “[šòphokläš, šòfokläš]”. Note however that “[átžä́ntuš]” should be “[ákkä́ntuš, átžä́ntuš, átčä́ntuš]”, “[žirkum­flä́x̌uš]” should be “[kirkumflä́x̌uš, žirkumflä́x̌uš, čirkum­flä́x̌uš]”, and [äĭf hä̀min] should be [äĭph/äĭf hä̀min].

In the section on the Russian alphabet I have made the following changes:

  • in §262 in the third column, I have corrected the letter-names from [i dváĭnóyä] to [i], from [i štóč-kóy] to [i š tóč-kóy], from [i škřát-kóy] to [i křát-koyä], from “[qa]” to “[q̌a]”, from [yäř] to [tvyóř-diy snak], from [yiřǘ] to [yeřǘ], from [yeř] to [myä́q̌-kiy snak], and from [yä́] to [yä́t]. In the fifth column, I have thrice altered “q” to “q̌”.
  • in the examples I have altered some spellings: Петроградъ, Кіевъ, Россія, Днѣпръ, хорошій, and легкій have been updated to Петроград, Киев, Россия, Днепр, хороший, and легкий per the 1918 spelling reform.
  • in the examples the transcription “[qáróǰiy]” has been corrected to “[q̌áróǰiy]”, and “[lyóqkiy]” to “[lyóq̌kiy]”.

In the section on the Arabic alphabet I have altered “[sài]” to “[sài(n)]”, “[vav]” to “[waw]”, “[v, u]” to “[w, u]”, “[tànvin]” to “[tànwin]”, “[vàšla]” to “[wàšla]”, and “[valìdi]” to “[walìdi]”.

The list of abbreviations beginning on page xi is cumulative between the abbreviations in the Vödabuk Volapüka and the Gramat Volapüka.

Once again I would like to offer my profound thanks to Arie de Jong’s son Arie and granddaughter Louise for their support of my publication of this volume, and for providing the splendid photograph I have used as the frontispiece. I am also again grateful to Arden R. Smith, and to the Guvan, Ralph Midgley, who reviewed the front matter and offered many helpful comments.

Michael Everson
Westport, 14 May 2012

 
HTML Michael Everson, Evertype, Cnoc Sceichín, Leac an Anfa, Cathair na Mart, Co. Mhaigh Eo, Éire, 2012-05-14

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